This month: The 3rd international Symposium, Will Meryl Streep be at the Gala Event, September 21s? Scott’s Story, Written by Fay LaFrage, Scott’s Mom. The Keto Recipe of the Month: Spinach Bites, created by Dawn Marie Martenz. And Introducing Charlie Foundation Approved Recipe Logos.
This month: The 3rd international Symposium, Consecutive conferences for families and professionals near Chicago. Our featured Keto Kid Story: A Shot In The Dark, by Tim and Christine Emerson. The Keto Recipe of the Month: Kale Chips, created by Dawn Marie Martenz.
The Keto Cookbook: Innovative Delicious Meals for Staying on the Ketogenic Diet
The Keto Cookbook: Innovative Delicious Meals for Staying on the Ketogenic Diet. Written by Dawn Marie Martenz and Laura Cramp. Published by Demos, 2011. http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/keto-cookbook-dawn-marie-martenz/1101003033?ean=9781936303236
Articles on the Ketogenic Diet
- Winter (1631 Downloads)
- Keto News Fall 2009 (1610 Downloads)
- Keto News Spring 2009 (1707 Downloads)
- Keto News Fall 2010 (2502 Downloads)
- Keto News Spring 2010 (1510 Downloads)
- Keto News Summer 2010 (1753 Downloads)
- Keto News Winter 2012 (2201 Downloads)
- Winter_Keto_News_2010.pdf (1324 Downloads)
- Keto_News_Spring_2011.pdf (1590 Downloads)
- Keto_News_Summer_2011.pdf (1669 Downloads)
- KETO_News_FALL_2011.pdf (1564 Downloads)
- Keto_News_Winter_2011.pdf (1360 Downloads)
- Keto_News_Spring_2012.pdf (1341 Downloads)
- KETO_NEWS_FALL2012.pdf (995 Downloads)
- Keto_News_Winter_2013.pdf (1377 Downloads)
- Epilepsy_Nutrition_2013.pdf (1140 Downloads)
- Keto_News_Spring_2013.pdf (1045 Downloads)
Ketogenic Diet Publications
Articles are listed alphabetically by author in the following categories:
- Ketogenic Diet
- Low Glycemic Index Treatment
- Modified Atkins Diet
- Glucose-1 Transporter Deficiency Syndrome
- Basic science research
Al-Mudallal AS, LaManna JC, Lust DW, Harik S. Diet-induced ketosis does not cause cerebral acidosis. Epilepsia 1996:37(3):258-261.
Bainbridge JL, Gidal BE, Ryan M. The ketogenic diet. Pharmacotherapy 1999;19(6)782-786.
Ballaban-Gil K, Callahan C, O'Dell C, Pappo M, Moshé S, Shinnar S. Complications of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia 1998;39(7):744-748.
Bank IM, Shemie SD, Rosenblatt B, Bernard C, Mackie AS. Sudden cardiac death in association with the ketogenic diet. Pediatr Neurol. 2008;39(6):429-431.
Baran~ ano KW, Hartman AL. The ketogenic diet: uses in epilepsy and other neurologic illnesses. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2008;10(6):410-419.
Bergqvist CAG, Schall JI, Stallings VA. Vitamin D status in children with intractable epilepsy and impact of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia 2007;48(1):66-71,2007.
Bergqvist CAG, Schall JI, Gallagher PR, Cnaan A, Stallings VA. Fasting versus gradual initiation of the ketogenic diet: a prospective, randomized clinical trial of efficacy. Epilepsia 2005;46(11)1810-1819.
Bergqvist CAG, Chee CM, Lutchka L, Rychik J, Stallings VA. Selenium deficiency associated with cardiomyopathy: a complication of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia 2003;44(4):618-620.
Best TH, Franz DN, Gilbert DL, Nelson DP, Epstein MR. Cardiac complications in pediatric patients on the ketogenic diet. Neurology. 2000;54(12):2328-2330.
Bettler MA. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies related to the ketogenic diet. Building Block for Life; a publication of the Pediatric Nutrition Practice Group of the American Dietetic Assoc. 2001;24:5-9.
Berry-Kravis E, Booth G, Sanchez AC, Woodbury-Kolb J. Carnitine levels and the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia 2001;42(11):1445-51.
Bough KJ, Rho JM. Anticonvulsant Mechanisms of the Ketogenic Diet. Epilepsia, 2007;48(1):43-58.
Bough KJ, Eagles DA. Comparison of the anticonvulsant efficacies and neurotoxic effects of valproic acid, phenytoin, and the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia. 2001;42(10):1345-1353.
Caraballo RH, Cersósimo, Sakr D, Cresta A, Escobal N, Fejerman N. Ketogenic diet in patients with dravet syndrome. Epilepsia 2005;46(9):1539-1544.
Caraballo RH, Cersósimo, Sakr D, Cresta A, Escobal N, Fejerman N. Ketogenic diet in patients with myoclonic-astatic epilepsy. Epilepsia 2006;8(2):151-5.
Casey JC, McGrogan J, Pillas D, Pyzik P, Freeman JM, Vining EPG. The implementation and maintenance of the ketogenic diet in children. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing 1999;31:294-302.
Chesney D, Brouhard BH, Wyllie E, Powaski K. Biochemical abnormalities of the ketogenic diet in children. Clin Pediatr. 1999;38(2):107-109.
DiMario FJ, Holland J. The ketogenic diet: a review of the experience at Connecticut children's medical center. Pediatric Neurology 2002;26(4):288-292.
Erickson JC, Jabbari B, Difazio MP. Basal ganglia injury as a complication of the ketogenic diet. Movement Disorders 2003;18(4):448-51.
Farasat S, Kossoff EH, Pillas DJ, et al. The importance of cognition in parental expectations prior to starting the ketogenic diet. Epilepsy Behav. 2006;8(2):406-410.
Freeman JM, Kossoff EH, Hartman AL. The ketogenic diet: one decade later. Pediatrics 2007; 119:535-543.
Freeman JM. What every pediatrician should know about the ketogenic diet. Contemporary Pediatrics 2003;20(5):113-127.
Freeman JM, 10 questions about the ketogenic diet. The Neurologist 2000;6(3):197-201.
Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Pillas DJ, Casey JC, Kelly MT. Efficacy of the ketogenic diet: a prospective evaluation in 150 children. Pediatrics 1998;102:1358-1363.
Freeman JM, Vining EPG. Seizures rapidly decrease after fasting: preliminary studies of the ketogenic diet. Arch Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 1999;153:946-949.
Freeman JM, Vining EPG, Kossoff EH, Pyzik PL, Ye X, Goodman SN. A blinded, crossover study of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia. 2009;50(2):322-325
Furth SL, Casey JC, Pyzik PL, Neu AM, Docimo SG, Vining EPG, Freeman JM, Fivush BA. Risk factors for urolithiasis in children on the ketogenic diet. Pediatric Nephrology 2000;15:787-790.
Gilbert DL, Pyzik PL, Vining EPG, Freeman JN. Medication cost reduction in children on the ketogenic diet: data from a prospective study of 150 children over one year. Journal of Child Neurology 1999;14:469-471.
Gilbert DL, Pyzik PL, Freeman JM. The ketogenic diet: seizure control correlates better with serum ß-hydroxybutryate than urine ketones. J Child Neurol 2000;15:789-790.
Groesbeck DK, Bluml RM, Kossoff EH. Long-term use of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of epilepsy. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2006;48(12):978-981.
Hallböök T, Kohler S., Rosén I. Effects of ketogenic diet on epileptiform activity in children with therapy resistant epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 2007 Dec; 77(2-3):134-40.
Hallböök T, Lundgren J, Rosén I. Ketogenic diet improves sleep quality in children with therapy-resistant epilepsy. Epilepsia 2007:48(1):59-65.
Hartman AL, Vining EPG. Clinical aspects of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia 2007;48(1):31- 42.
Hemingway C, McGrogan J, Freeman JM. The energy requirements of spasticity. Developmental Medicine Child Neurology 2001;43:277-278.
Hemingway C, Freeman JM, Pillas DJ, Pyzik PL. The ketogenic diet: a 3-6 year follow-up of 150 children prospectively enrolled. Pediatrics 2001:108;898-905.
Hemingway C, Pyzik PL, Freeman JM. Changing physician attitudes toward the ketogenic diet: a parent centered approach to physician education about a medication alternative. Epilepsy and Behavior 2001;2:574-578.
Henderson BC, Filloux FM, Alder SC, Lyon, JL, Caplin DA. Efficacy of the ketogenic diet as a treatment option for epilepsy: Meta-analysis. J Child Neurol; 2006; 21(3):193-198.
Hosain SA, La Vega-Talbott M, Solomon GE. Ketogenic diet in pediatric epilepsy patients with gastrostomy feeding. Pediatr Neurol. 2005;32(2):81-83.
Howrie DL, McGhee KH, Crumrine PK, Katyal N. The ketogenic diet: the need for a multidisciplinary approach. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 1998;32:384-385.
Jung da E, Kang HC, Kim HD. Long-term outcome of the ketogenic diet for intractable childhood epilepsy with focal malformation of cortical development. Pediatrics. 2008;122(2):e330-e333.
Kang HC, Kim JY, Kim DW, Kim HD. Efficacy and safety of the ketogenic diet for intractable childhood epilepsy: Korean multicenter experience. Epilepsia 2005;46(2):272- 279.
Kang HC, Lee MY, Kim DH, Lee SJ, Slama A. Safe and effective use of the ketogenic diet in children with epilepsy and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex defects. Epilepsia 2007;48(1):82-88.
Kang HC, Chung DE, Kim DW, Kim HD. Early- and late-onset complications of the ketogenic diet for intractable epilepsy. Epilepsia 2004;45(9):116-1123.
Keene DL. A systematic review of the use of the ketogenic diet in childhood epilepsy. Pediatr Neurol. 2006;35(1):1-5.
Khoi DT, Kossoff EH, Rubenstein JE, Pyzik PL, McGrogan JR, Vining EPG. Can you predict an immediate, complete, and sustained response to the ketogenic diet? Epilepsia 2005;46(4):580-582.
Kim DW, Kang HC, Park JC, Kim DH. Benefits of the nonfasting ketogenic diet compared with the initial fasting ketogenic diet. Pediatrics 2004;114:1627-1630.
Klepper J, Leiendecker B, Bredahl R, Athanassopoulos S, Heinen F, Gertsen E, Florcken A, Metz A, Voit T. Introduction of a ketogenic diet in young infants. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2002;25(6):449-60
Kossoff EH, Laux LC, Blackford R, et al. When do seizures improve with the ketogenic diet? Epilepsia. 2008;49(2):329-333.
Kossoff EH, Pyzik PL, Furth SL, et al. Kidney stones, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia. 2002;43:1168-1171.
Kossoff EH, Pyzik PL, Rubenstein JE, Bergqvist AGC, Buchhalter JR, Donner EJ, Nordli DR, Wheless JW. Combined ketogenic diet and vagus nerve stimulation:rational polytherapy? Epilepsia 2007;48(1):77-81.
Kossoff EH. More fat and fewer seizures: dietary therapies for epilepsy. Lancet 2004;(3)415-420.
Kossoff EH, Hedderick EF, Turner Z, Freeman JM. A casecontrol evaluation of the ketogenic diet versus ACTH for new onset infantile spasms. Epilepsia. 2008;49(9):1504- 1509.
Kossoff EH, McGrogan JR. Worldwide use of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia 2005;46(2):280-289.
Kossoff EH, McGrogan JR, Freeman JM. Benefits of an all-liquid ketogenic diet. Epilepsia 2004;45:1163.
Kossoff EH, Pyzik PL, McGrogan JR, Vining EPG, Freeman JM. Efficacy of the ketogenic diet for infantile spasms. Pediatrics 2002; 109(5):780-783.
Kossoff EH, Pyzik PL, Rubenstein JE, et al. Combined ketogenic diet and vagus nerve stimulation: rational polytherapy? Epilepsia. 2007;48(1):77-81.
Kossoff EH, Thiele EA, Pfeifer HH, McGrogan JR, Freeman JM. Tuberous sclerosis complex and the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia (in press).
Kossoff EH, Pyzik PL, Furth SL, Hladky HD, Freeman JM, Vining EPG. Kidney stones, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia 2002;43(10):1168-1171.
Kossoff EH, Zupec-Kania BA, Amark PE, et al. Optimal clinical management of children receiving the ketogenic diet: recommendations of the international ketogenic diet study group. Epilepsia.2009;50(2):304-317.
Kwiterovitch PO, Vining EPG, Pyzik P, Skolasky R, Freeman JM. The effect of a high fat, ketogenic diet on the plasma levels of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in children. JAMA 2002;290:912-920.
Lefevre F, Aronson N. Ketogenic diet for the treatment of refractory epilepsy in children: a systematic review of efficacy. Pediatrics 2005;105:46-53.
Levy R, Cooper P. Ketogenic diet for epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;3:CD001903.
Lyczkowski DA, Pfeifer HH, Ghosh S, Thiele EA. Safety and tolerability of the ketogenic diet in pediatric epilepsy: effects of valproate combination therapy. Epilepsia 2005:46(9):1533-1538.
Kilaru S, Bergqvist AG. Current treatment of myoclonic astatic epilepsy: clinical experience at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Epilepsia. 2007;48(9):1703-1707.
Mady MA, Kossoff EH, McGregor AL, Wheless JW, Pyzik PL, Freeman JM. The ketogenic diet: adolescents can do it too. Epilepsia 2003;44(6):847-851.
Mandel A, Ballew M, Pina-Garza JE, Stalmasek V, Clemens LE. Medical costs are reduced in children with severe epilepsy who are successfully maintained on a ketogenic diet. Future dimensions in clinical nutrition management 1998;17(3):12-13.
Marsh EB, Freeman JM, Kossoff EH, et al. The outcome of children with intractable seizures: a 3- to 6-year follow-up of 67 children who remained on the ketogenic diet less than one year. Epilepsia. 2006;47(2):425-430.
Martinez CC, Pyzik P, Kossof EH. Discontinuing the ketogenic diet in seizure-free children: recurrence and risk factors. Epilepsia 2007;48(1):187-190.
Maydell BV, Wyllie E, Akhtar N, Kotagal P, Powaski K, Cook K, Weinstock A, Rothner DA. Efficacy of the ketogenic diet in focal versus generalized seizures. Pediatric Neurology 2001;25:208-212.
Morris AAM. Cerebral ketone body metabolism. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 2005;28:109-121. Murphy P, Likhodii S, Nylen K. The antidepressant properties of the ketogenic diet. Biol Psychiatry 2004;56(12):981-3.
Morrison PF, Pyzik PL, Hamdy R, Hartman AL, Kossoff EH. The influence of concurrent anticonvulsants on the efficacy of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia. In Press.
Neal EG, Chaffe HM, Edwards N, Lawson MS, Schwartz RH, Cross JH. Growth of children on classical and medium chain triglyceride diets. Pediatrics. 2008;122(2):e334-e340.
Neal EG, Chaffe H, Schwartz RH, et al. The ketogenic diet for the treatment of childhood epilepsy: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7(6):500-506.
Neal EG, ChaffeH, Schwartz RH, et al. A randomized trial of classical and medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diets in the treatment of childhood epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2009;50(5):1109-1117.
Nizamuddin J, Turner Z, Rubenstein JE, Pyzik PL, Kossoff EH. Management and risk factors for dyslipidemia with the ketogenic diet. J Child Neurol. 2008;23(7):758-761.
Nylen K, Likhoddi S, Abdelmalik PA, Clarke J, Burnham WM. A comparison of the ability of a 4:1 ketogenic diet and a 6.3:1 ketogenic diet to elevate seizure thresholds in adult and young rats. Epilepsia 2005;46(8):1198-1204.
Phelps SJ, Hovinga CA, Rose DF, Vaugn C, Olsen-Creasy K. The ketogenic diet in pediatric epilepsy. Nutrition in Clinical Practice 1998;13:267-282.
Porta N, Vallee L, Boutry E, et al. Comparison of seizure reductionand serum fatty acid levels after receiving the ketogenic and modified Atkins diet. Seizure. 2009;18(5):359- 364.
Pulsifer MB, Gordon JM, Brandt J, Vining EP, Freeman JM. Effects of ketogenic diet on development and behavior: preliminary report of a prospective study. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2001;43(5):301-306.
Rubenstein JE, Kossoff EH, Pyxik PL, Vining PG, McGrogan JR, Freeman JM. Experience in the use of the ketogenic diet as early therapy. J Child Neurol. 2005;20(1):31-34.
Sampath A, Kossoff EH, Furth SL, Pyzik PL, Vining EP. Kidney stones and the ketogenic diet: risk factors and prevention. J Child Neurol. 2007;22(4):375-378.
Seo JH, Lee JS, Kim HD. Efficacy and tolerability of the ketogenic diet according to lipid:nonlipid ratios; comparison of 3:1 with 4:1 diet. Epilepsia 2007.48(4):801-5.
Spulber G, Spulber S, Hagena¨s L, Amark P, Dahlin M. Growth dependence on insulinlike growth factor-1 during the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia. 2009;50(2):297-303.
Stainman RS, Turner Z, Rubenstein JE, Kossoff EH. Decreased relative efficacy of the ketogenic diet for children with surgically approachable epilepsy. Seizure. 2007;16(7):615-619.
Stewart WA, Gordon K, Camfield P. Acute pancreatitis causing death in a child on the ketogenic diet. J Child Neurol. 2001;16(9):682.
Sullivan PB, Lambert B, Rose M, Ford-Adams M, Johnson A, Griffiths P. Prevalence and severity of feeding and nutritional problems in children with neurological impairment: Oxford Feeding Study. Dev Med Child Neuro. 2000;42(10):674-80.
Swartzkroin PA, RHO JM. Can the ketogenic diet be anticonvulsant as well as antiepileptiogenic?. Epilepsia 2003;44:752-760.
Swink TD, Vining EPG, Freeman JM. The ketogenic diet 1996. Advances in Pediatrics 1997;44:297-329.
Takeoka M, Riviello JJ, Pfeifer H, Thiele EA. Concomitant treatment with topiramate and ketogenic diet in pediatric epilepsy. Epilepsia 2002;43(9):1072-1075.
Tallian KB, Nahata MC, Chang-Yong T. Role of the ketogenic diet in children with intractable seizures. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 1998;32:349-356.
Thiele EA, Assessing the efficacy of antiepileptic treatments: the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia 2003;44(Suppl.7):26-29.
Valencia I, Pfeifer H, Thiele EA. General anesthesia and the ketogenic diet: clinical experience in nine patients. Epilepsia 2002; 43(5):525-9
Vamecq J, Vallée L, Lesage F, Gressens P, Stables JP. Antiepileptic popular ketogenic diet: emerging twists in an ancient story. Progress in Neurobiology 2005;75:1-28.
Vining EPG, Freeman JM. A multi-center study of the efficacy of the ketogenic diet. Archives of Neurology 1998;55:1433-1437.
Vining EPG, Pyzik P, McGrogan J, Hladky H, Ananda A, Kreigler S. Growth of children on the ketogenic diet. Develp Med. Child Neurology 2002;44:796-802.
Williams S, Basualdo-Hammond C, Curtis R, Schuller R. Growth retardation in children with epilepsy on the ketogenic diet: a retrospective chart review. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002;102(3):405-407.
Wheless JW. The ketogenic diet: an effective medical therapy with side effects. Journal of Child Neurology 2001;16:633-635.
Woody RD, Steele RW, Whitefield L, Knapple BS, Neylon S, Pilkington Jr. Impaired neutrophil function in children with seizures treated with the ketogenic diet. J of Pediatrics 1989;115(3)427-430.
Zupec-Kania B. Multidisciplinary management of the ketogenic diet. Building Block for Life; Pediatric Nutrition Practice Group 2001;24(2)1-5.
Zupec-Kania B. Summary of ketogenic diet survey of practitioners (1998-1999). Building Block for Life; Pediatric Nutrition Practice Group 2001;24(2)12-14.
Zupec-Kania BA, Zupanc M. Long-term management of the ketogenic diet: seizure monitoring, nutrition, and supplementation. Epilepsia. 2008;49(supp1 8):23-26.
Low Glycemic Index Treatment
Pfeifer H, Thiele E. Low-glycemic-index treatment: A liberalized ketogenic diet for treatment of intractable epilepsy. Neurology 2005;65:1810-1812.
Muzykewicz DA, Lyczkowski DA, Memon N, Conant KD, Pfeifer HH, Thiele EA. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the low glycemic index treatment in pediatric epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2009;50(5):1118-1126.
Modified Atkins Diet
Carrette E, Vonck K, de Herdt V, et al. A pilot trial with modified Atkins' diet in adult patients with refractory epilepsy. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2008;110(8):797-803.
Ito S, Oguni H, Ito Y, Ishigaki K, Ohinata J, Osawa M. Modified Atkins diet therapy for a case with glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome. Brain Dev. 2008;30(3):226- 228.
Kang HC, Lee HS, You SJ, Kang DC, Ko TS, Kim HD. Use of a modified atkins diet in intractable childhood epilepsy. Epilepsia 2007;48(1):182-186.
Kossoff EH, Dorward JL, Molinero MR, et al. The Modified Atkins Diet: a potential treatment for developing countries.Epilepsia. 2008;49(9):1646-1647.
Kossoff EH, McGrogan JR, Bluml RM, Pillas DJ, Rubenstein JE, Vining EP. A modified Atkins diet is effective for the treatment of intractable pediatric epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2006;47(2):421-424.
Kossoff EH, Krauss GL, McGrogan JR, Freeman JM. Efficacy of the…. atkins diet as therapy for intractable epilepsy. Neurology 2003;61:1789-91.
Kossoff EH, Pyzik PL, McGrogan JR, Rubenstein JE. Impact of early versus late anticonvulsant reduction after ketogenic diet initiation. Epilepsy Behav. 2004;5(4):499- 502.
Kossoff EH, Rowley H, Sinha SR, Vining EP. A prospective study of the modified Atkins diet for intractable epilepsy inadults. Epilepsia. 2008;49(2):316-319.
Kossoff EH, Turner Z, Bluml RM, Pyzik PL, Vining EP. A randomized, crossover comparison of daily carbohydrate limits using the modified Atkins diet. Epilepsy Behav. 2007;10(3):432-436.
Weber S, Mølgaard C, Karentaudorf, Uldall P. Modified Atkins diet to children and adolescents with medical intractable epilepsy. Seizure. 2009;18(4):237-240.
Basic Science Research
Bough KJ, Wetherington J, Hassel B, et al. Mitochondrial biogenesis in the anticonvulsant mechanism of the ketogenic diet.
Ann Neurol. 2006;60(2):223-235. Bough KJ, Rho JM. Anticonvulsant Mechanisms of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia 2007;48(1):43-58.
Bough KJ, Schwartzkroin PA, Rho JM. Calorie restriction and ketogenic diet diminish neuronal excitability in rat dentate gyrus in vivo. Epilepsia 2003;44(6):752-760.
Garriga-Canut M, Schoenike B, Qazi R, et al. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose reduces epilepsy progression by NRSF-CtBP dependent metabolic regulation of chromatin structure. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9(11):1382-1387.
Gasior M, Rogawski MA, Hartman AL. Neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet. Behav Pharmacol. 2006;17(5-6):431-439.
Lian XY, Khan FA, Stringer JL. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate has anticonvulsant activity in models of acute seizures in adult rats. J Neurosci. 2007;27(44):12007-12011.
Likhodii SS, Serbanescu I, Cortez MA, Murphy P, Snead OC 3rd, Burnham WM. Anticonvulsant properties of acetone, a brain ketone elevated by the ketogenic diet. Ann Neurol. 2003;54(2):219-226.
Maalouf M, Rho JM, Mattson MP. The neuroprotective properties of calorie restriction, the ketogenic diet, and ketone bodies. Brain Res Rev. 2009;59(2):293-315.
Ma W, Berg J, Yellen G. Ketogenic diet metabolites reduce firing in central neurons by opening K(ATP) channels. J Neurosci. 2007;27(14):3618-3625.
Rho JM, Anderson GD, Donevan SD, et al. Acetoacetate, acetone, and dibenzylamine (a contaminant in 1-(þ)-beta-hydroxybutyrate) exhibit direct anticonvulsant actions in vivo. Epilepsia. 2002;43(4):358-361.
Seyfried TN, Kiebish M, Mukherjee P, Marsh J. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer with calorically restricted ketogenic diets. Epilepsia. 2008;49(suppl 8):114-116.
Stafstrom CE, Ockuly JC, Murphree L, Valley MT, Roopra A, Sutula TP. Anticonvulsant and antiepileptic actions of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in epilepsy models. Ann Neurol. 2009; 65(4):435-447.
Van der Auwera I, Wera S, Van Leuven F, Henderson ST. A ketogenic diet reduces amyloid beta 40 and 42 in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2005;2:28.
Zhao Z, Lange DJ, Voustianiouk A, et al. The ketogenic diet as a potential novel therapeutic intervention in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. BMC Neurosci. 2006;7:29.
Glucose-1 Transporter Deficiency Syndrome
Friedman JR, Thiele EA, Wang D, Levine KB, Cloherty EK, Pfeifer HH, DeVivo DC, Carruthers A, Natowicz MR. Atypical GLUT1 deficiency with prominent movement disorder responsive to ketogenic diet. Movement Disorders 2005;(in press).
Epilepsy and the Ketogenic Diet. C. Stafstrom & J. Rho. Eds. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2004, 375 pp. www.humanapress.com
The Ketogenic Diet; A Treatment for Children and Others with Epilepsy. John M. Freeman, MD, Eric Kossoff, MD, Jennifer B. Freeman, Millicent T. Kelly, RD, LD 4th Edition, Demos Press, NY, 2006, 328pp
Helping Your Child Succeed on the Ketogenic Diet (Snyder) Demos 2007.
Epilepsy is synonymous "with seizure disorder". An "epilepsy" diagnosis is given when an individual has 2 or more unprovoked seizures.
Seizure—A surge in neuronal activity in the brain that can manifest in body movement or function, sensation, awareness or behavior. A seizure can last from a few seconds to status epilepticus, a continuous seizure that will not stop without intervention. Seizures are often associated with a sudden and involuntary contraction of a group of muscles and loss of consciousness. However, a seizure can also be as subtle as marching numbness of a part of the body, a brief or long term loss of memory, sparkling or flashes, sensing/discharging of an unpleasant odor similar to alcohol base being produced by internal organs, a strange epigastric sensation or a sensation of fear and total state of confusion which in some cases leads to death during seizure.
Seizure classification Seizure types are organized according to whether the source of the seizure within the brain is localized or distributed.
- Partial seizures begin with an electrical discharge from a limited area.
- Simple partial seizures begin in the motor cortex of the frontal lobe and may include involuntary movements but the individual does not lose consciousness.
- Complex partial seizures usually begin in the temporal lobe or frontal lobe may include involuntary movement but involves loss of consciousness.
- Simple partial seizures with secondary generalization is a simple partial seizure that spreads to involve the entire brain causing the body to stiffen and muscle jerking.
- Generalized seizures begin with an electrical discharge that involves both sides of the brain at once.
- Absence seizures involve an interruption to consciousness where the person experiencing the seizure seems to become vacant and unresponsive for a short period of time (usually up to 30 seconds). Slight muscle twitching may occur.
- Myoclonic seizures involve an extremely brief (< 0.1 second) muscle contraction and can result in jerky movements of muscles or muscle groups.
- Tonic seizures involve the loss of muscle tone, causing the person to fall to the ground.
- Tonic-clonic seizures (formerly known as grand mal) has two parts, a tonic phase and a clonic phase. First the tonic phase of muscle stiffening followed by the clonic phase which means repeated jerking. During the seizure, the person loses consciousness; may drool; bite his cheek or lip; or lose bladder or bowel control. After the seizure, the person is usually confused and tired.
- Status epilepticus refers to continuous seizure activity with no recovery between successive seizures. When the seizures are convulsive, it is a life-threatening condition and emergency medical assistance should be called immediately if this is suspected. A tonic-clonic seizure lasting longer than 5 minutes (or two minutes longer than a given person's usual seizures) is usually considered grounds for calling the emergency services.
Epilepsy statistics according to the Epilepsy Foundation
- 200,000 new cases of epilepsy are diagnosed each year.
- Incidence is highest under the age of 2 and over 65.
- 45,000 children under the age of 15 develop epilepsy each year.
- Males are slightly more likely to develop epilepsy than females.
- Incidence is greater in African American and socially disadvantaged populations.
- Trend shows decreased incidence in children; increased incidence in the elderly.
- In 70 percent of new cases, no cause is apparent.
- 50 percent of people with new cases of epilepsy will have generalized onset seizures.
- Generalized seizures are more common in children under the age of 10; afterwards more than half of all new cases of epilepsy will have partial seizures.
Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are medications used to treat seizures.
Catemenial seizures refers to seizure activity associated with a woman's menstrual cycle.
Idiopathic epilepsy, is epilepsy with an unknown cause.
Intractable epilepsy also called refractory seizures are seizures that are not controlled by AEDs.
Epilepsy syndromes are specific syndromes that are associated with one or more seizure types (however, not all seizures will be part of a syndrome).
|Aicardi syndrome||Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome|
|Angelman syndrome||Migrating partial epilepsy in infancy|
|Benign epilepsy of childhood with occipital paroxysms||Myoclonic astatic epilepsy/Doose syn.|
|Benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy||Ohtahara Syndrome|
|Benign partial epilepsy in infancy||Panayiotopoulos syndrome|
|Benign rolandic epilepsy||Pyridoxine dependency|
|Childhood absence epilepsy||Ramsay Hunt syndrome|
|Early myoclonic encephalopathy||Rasmussen syndrome|
|Electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep||Rett syndrome|
|Epilepsy with myoclonic absences||Ring chromosome 20 syndrome|
|Eyelid myoclonia with absences||Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy including Dravet syndrome|
|Gelastatic epilepsy||Sturge-Weber syndrome|
|Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizure plus||West syndrome (infantile spasms)|
|Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy|
|Landau Kleffner Syndrome|
EEG stands for Electroencephalography and in the broadest sense of the term, refers to the measurement of the electrical activity produced by the brain.
MRI stands for Magnetic resonance imaging and is primarily a radiology technique most commonly used to visualize the structure and function of the body.
SPECT stands for Single photon emission computed tomography is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays. It is able to provide true 3D information.